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Rule 1.15. Safekeeping Property.


Colo. RPC 1.15(2012)
Rule 1.15. Safekeeping Property.
**reflects changes received through March 13, 2012**


General Duties of Lawyers Regarding Property of Clients and Third Parties

(a) A lawyer shall hold property of clients or third persons that is in a lawyer's possession in connection with a representation separate from the lawyer's own property. Funds shall be kept in a separate trust account maintained in the state where the lawyer's office is situated, or elsewhere with the consent of the client or third person. Other property shall be identified as such and appropriately safeguarded. Complete records of such funds and other property of clients or third parties shall be kept by the lawyer and shall be preserved for a period of seven years after termination of the representation.

(b) Upon receiving funds or other property in which a client or third person has an interest, a lawyer shall, promptly or otherwise as permitted by law or by agreement with the client or third person, deliver to the client or third person any funds or other property that the client or third person is entitled to receive and, promptly upon request by the client or third person, render a full accounting regarding such property.

(c) When in connection with a representation a lawyer is in possession of property in which two or more persons (one of whom may be the lawyer) claim interests, the property shall be kept separate by the lawyer until there is an accounting and severance of their interests. If a dispute arises concerning their respective interests, the portion in dispute shall be kept separate by the lawyer until the dispute is resolved. The lawyer shall promptly distribute all portions of the property as to which the interests are not in dispute.

 Required Bank Accounts

(d) Every lawyer in private practice in this state shall maintain in a financial institution doing business in Colorado, in the lawyer's own name, or in the name of a partnership of lawyers, or in the name of an entity authorized pursuant to C.R.C.P. 265 of which the lawyer is a member, or in the name of the lawyer or entity by whom the lawyer is employed or with whom the lawyer is associated:

(1) A trust account or accounts, separate from any business and personal accounts and from any fiduciary accounts that the lawyer may maintain as executor, guardian, trustee, or receiver, or in any other fiduciary capacity, into which the lawyer shall deposit funds entrusted to the lawyer's care and any advance payment of fees that has not been earned or advance payment of expenses that have not been incurred. A lawyer shall not be required to maintain a trust account if the lawyer never receives such funds or payments; and,

(2) A business account or accounts into which all funds received for professional services shall be deposited. All business accounts, as well as all deposit slips and all checks drawn thereon, shall be prominently designated as a "professional account," an "office account," or an "operating account."

(e) With respect to trust accounts established pursuant to this Rule:

(1) One or more of the trust accounts may be a Colorado Lawyer Trust Account Foundation ("COLTAF") account or accounts, as described in Rule 1.15(h)(2). All COLTAF accounts shall be designated "COLTAF Trust Account."

(2) All such trust accounts, whether general or specific, as well as all deposits slips and checks drawn thereon, shall be prominently designated as a "trust account." Nothing herein shall prohibit any additional descriptive designation for a specific trust account.

(3) Trust accounts shall be maintained only in financial institutions doing business in Colorado that are approved by the Regulation Counsel based upon policy guidelines adopted by the Board of Trustees of the Colorado Attorneys' Fund for Client Protection. Regulation Counsel shall annually publish a list of such approved institutions. A financial institution shall be approved if it shall file with the Regulation Counsel an agreement, in a form provided, to report to the Regulation Counsel in the event any properly payable trust account instrument is presented against insufficient funds, irrespective of whether the instrument is honored; any such agreement shall apply to all branches of the financial institution and shall not be canceled except on thirty-days notice in writing to the Regulation Counsel. The agreement shall further provide that all reports made by the financial institution shall be in the following format: (1) in the case of a dishonored instrument, the report shall be identical to the overdraft notice customarily forwarded to the depositor; (2) in the case of an instrument that is presented against insufficient funds but which instrument is honored, the report shall identify the financial institution, the lawyer or law firm, the account number, the date of presentation for payment, and the date paid, as well as the amount of the overdraft created thereby. Such reports shall be made simultaneously with, and within the time provided by law for, notice of dishonor, if any; if an instrument presented against insufficient funds is honored, then the report shall be made within five banking days of the date of presentation for payment against insufficient funds. In addition, each financial institution approved by the Regulation Counsel must cooperate with the COLTAF program and must offer a COLTAF account to any lawyer who wishes to open one. In addition to the reports specified above, approved financial institutions shall agree to cooperate fully with the Regulation Counsel and to produce any trust account or business account records on receipt of a subpoena therefore in connection with any proceeding pursuant to C.R.C.P. 251. Nothing herein shall preclude a financial institution from charging a lawyer or law firm for the reasonable cost of producing the reports and records required by this Rule, but such charges shall not be a transaction cost to be charged against funds payable to the COLTAF program. Every lawyer or law firm maintaining a trust account in this state shall, as a condition thereof, be conclusively deemed to have consented to the reporting and production requirements by financial institutions mandated by this Rule and shall indemnify and hold harmless the financial institution for its compliance with such reporting and production requirement. A financial institution shall be immune from suit arising out of its actions or omissions in reporting overdrafts or insufficient funds or producing documents under this Rule. The agreement entered into by a financial institution with the Regulation Counsel shall not be deemed to create a duty to exercise a standard of care and shall not constitute a contract for the benefit of any third parties that may sustain a loss as a result of lawyers overdrawing lawyer trust accounts.

(4) The name of institutions in which such accounts are maintained and identification numbers of each account shall be recorded on a statement filed with the annual attorney registration payment pursuant to C.R.C.P. 227(2). Such information shall be available for use in accordance with paragraph (j) of this Rule. For each COLTAF account, the statement shall indicate the account number, the name the account is under, and the depository institution.

 Trust Account Requirements and Management; COLTAF Accounts

(f) All trust accounts shall be maintained in interest-bearing, insured depository accounts; provided, that with the consent of the client or third person whose funds are in the account, an account in which interest is paid to the client or third person need not be an insured depository account. All COLTAF accounts shall be insured depository accounts. For the purpose of this Rule, "insured depository accounts" shall mean government insured accounts at a regulated financial institution, on which withdrawals or transfers can be made on demand, subject only to any notice period which the institution is required to reserve by law or regulation.

(g) A lawyer may deposit funds reasonably sufficient to pay anticipated service charges or other fees for maintenance or operation of such account into trust accounts. Such funds shall be clearly identified in the lawyer's records of the account.

(h) COLTAF Accounts:

(1) Except as may be prescribed by subparagraph (2) below, interest earned on accounts in which the funds are deposited (less any deduction for service charges or fees of the depository institution) shall belong to the clients or third persons whose funds have been so deposited; and the lawyer or law firm shall have no right or claim to such interest.

(2) If the funds are not held in accounts with the interest paid to clients or third persons as provided in subsection (h)(1) of this Rule, a lawyer or law firm shall establish a COLTAF account, which is a pooled interest-bearing insured depository account for funds of clients or third persons that are nominal in amount or are expected to be held for a short period of time in compliance with the following provisions:

(a) No interest from such an account shall be payable to a lawyer or law firm.

(b) The account shall include funds of clients or third persons that are nominal in amount or are expected to be held for a short period of time with the intent that such funds not earn interest in excess of the reasonably estimated cost of establishing, maintaining and accounting for trust accounts for the benefit of such clients or third parties.

(c) A lawyer or law firm depositing funds in a COLTAF account shall direct the depository institution:

(i) To remit interest, net of service charges or fees, if any are charged, computed in accordance with the institution's standard accounting practice, at least quarterly, to COLTAF; and

(ii) To transmit with each remittance to COLTAF a statement showing the name of the lawyer or law firm on whose account the remittance is sent and the rate of interest applied.

(d) The provisions of this subparagraph (h)(2) shall not apply in those instances where it is not feasible to establish a trust account for the benefit of COLTAF for reasons beyond the control of the lawyer or law firm, such as the unavailability of a financial institution in the community that offers such an account.

(3) If a lawyer or law firm discovers that funds of any client or third person have mistakenly been held in a trust account for the benefit of COLTAF in a sufficient amount or for a sufficiently long time so that interest on the funds being held in such account exceeds the reasonably estimated cost of establishing, maintaining and accounting for a trust account for the benefit of such client or third person (including without limitation administrative costs of the lawyer or law firm, bank service charges, and costs of preparing tax reports of such income to the client or third person) the lawyer or law firm shall request COLTAF to calculate and remit trust account interest already received by it to the lawyer or law firm for the benefit of such client or third person in accordance with written procedures that COLTAF shall publish and make available through its website and shall provide to any lawyer or law firm upon request.

(4) Information necessary to determine compliance or justifiable reasons for noncompliance with subparagraph (h)(2) shall be included in the annual attorney registration statement. COLTAF shall assist the Colorado Supreme Court in determining whether lawyers or law firms have complied in establishing the trust account required under subparagraph (h)(2). If it appears that a lawyer or law firm has not complied where it is feasible to do so, the matter may be referred to the Regulation Counsel for investigation and proceedings in accordance with C.R.C.P. 251.

(i) Management of Trust Accounts.

(1) ATM or Debit Cards. A lawyer shall not use any debit card or automated teller machine card to withdraw funds from a trust account.

(2) All trust account withdrawals and transfers shall be made only by a lawyer admitted to practice law in this state or by a person supervised by such lawyer and may be made only by authorized bank or wire transfer or by check payable to a named payee.

(3) Cash withdrawals and checks made payable to "Cash" are prohibited.

(4) Cancelled Checks. A lawyer shall request that the lawyer's trust account bank return to the lawyer, photo static or electronic images of cancelled checks written on the trust account. If the bank provides electronic images, the lawyer shall either maintain paper copies of the electronic images or maintain the electronic images in readily obtainable format.

(5) Persons Authorized to Sign. Only a lawyer admitted to practice law in this state or a person supervised by such lawyer shall be an authorized signatory on a trust account;

(6) Reconciliation of Trust Accounts. No less than quarterly, a lawyer or a person authorized by the lawyer shall reconcile the trust account records both as to individual clients and in the aggregate with the lawyer's trust account bank statement(s).

 Required Accounting Records; Retention of Records; Availability of Records

(j) A lawyer, whether practicing as a sole practitioner, in a partnership, or through an entity authorized pursuant to C.R.C.P. 265, shall maintain in a current status and retain for a period of seven years after the event that they record:

(1) Appropriate receipt and disbursement records of all deposits in and withdrawals from all trust accounts and any other bank account that concerns the lawyer's practice of law, specifically identifying the date, payor and description of each item deposited as well as the date, payee, and purpose of each disbursement. All trust account monies intended for deposit shall be deposited intact without deductions or "cash out" from the deposit and the duplicate deposit slip that evidences the deposit must be sufficiently detailed to identify each item deposited;

(2) An appropriate record-keeping system identifying each separate person or entity for whom the lawyer holds money or property in trust, for all trust accounts, showing the payor of all funds deposited in such accounts, the names and addresses of all persons for whom the funds are or were held, the amount of such funds, the description and amounts of charges or withdrawals from such accounts, and the names of all persons to whom any such funds were disbursed;

(3) Copies of all retainer and compensation agreements with clients (including written communications setting forth the basis or rate for the fees charged by the lawyer as required by Rule 1.5(b);

(4) Copies of all statements to clients showing the disbursement of funds to them or on their behalf;

(5) Copies of all bills issued to clients;

(6) Copies of all records showing payments to any persons, not in the lawyer's regular employ, for services rendered or performed; and

(7) All bank statements and photo static copies or electronic copies of all canceled checks.

(k) The financial books and other records required by this Rule shall be maintained in accordance with one or more of the following recognized accounting methods: the accrual method, the cash basis method, and the income tax method. All such accounting methods shall be consistently applied. Bookkeeping records may be maintained by computer provided they otherwise comply with this Rule and provided further that printed copies can be made on demand in accordance with this Rule. They shall be located at the principal Colorado office of each lawyer, partnership, professional corporation, or limited liability corporation.

(l) Dissolutions and Departures. Upon the dissolution of a law firm, the lawyers in the lawfirm shall make arrangements for the maintenance or disposition of records and client files in accordance with subsection (j) of this Rule and Rule 1.16A. Upon the departure of a lawyer from a law firm, the departing lawyer and the lawyers in the law firm shall make appropriate arrangements for the maintenance or disposition of records and client files in accordance with subsection (j) of this Rule and Rule 1.16A.

(m) Availability Of Records. Any of the records required to be kept by this Rule shall be produced in response to a subpoena duces tecum issued by the Regulation Counsel in connection with proceedings pursuant to C.R.C.P. 251. When so produced, all such records shall remain confidential except for the purposes of the particular proceeding and their contents shall not be disclosed by anyone in such a way as to violate the attorney-client privilege of the lawyer's client.


Source: (a) amended and (g) to (j) added June 25, 1998, effective January 1, 1999; (f) added June 25, 1998, effective July 1, 1999; IP(f), (f)(3), and (f)(6) amended and adopted May 13, 1999, effective July 1, 1999; (e)(3) corrected and effective November 9, 1999; (f)(7) added and adopted April 18, 2001, effective July 1, 2001; entire Appendix repealed and readopted April 12, 2007, effective January 1, 2008; (d)(2) and (i)(6) amended and effective November 6, 2008; (j)(7), (l), and Comment 1 amended and (j)(8) deleted and effective February 10, 2011.



 [1] A lawyer should hold property of others with the care required of a professional fiduciary. Securities should be kept in a safe deposit box except when some other form of safekeeping is warranted by special circumstances. "Property" generally refers to jewelry and other valuables entrusted to the lawyer by the client, as well as documents having intrinsic value or directly affecting valuable rights, such as securities, negotiable instruments, deeds, and wills. All property that is the property of clients or third persons should be kept separate from the lawyer's business and personal property and, if monies, in one or more trust accounts.

 [2] Trust accounts containing funds of clients or third persons held in connection with a representation must be interest-bearing for the benefit of the client or third person or for the benefit of the Colorado Lawyer Trust Account Foundation where the funds are nominal in amount or expected to be held for a short period of time. A lawyer should exercise good faith judgment in determining initially whether funds are of such nominal amount or are expected to be held by the lawyer for such a short period of time that the funds should not be placed in an interest-bearing account for the benefit of the client or third person. The lawyer should also consider such other factors as (i) the costs of establishing and maintaining the account, service charges, accounting fees, and tax report procedures; (ii) the nature of the transaction(s) involved; and (iii) the likelihood of delay in the relevant proceedings. A lawyer should review at reasonable intervals whether changed circumstances require further action respecting the deposit of such funds, including without limitation the action described in subparagraph 1.15(h)(3).

 [3] Separate trust accounts may be warranted when administering estate monies or acting in similar fiduciary capacities.

 [4] Lawyers often receive funds from third parties from which the lawyer's fee will be paid. If there is risk that the client may divert funds without paying the fee, the lawyer is not required to remit the portion from which the fee is to be paid. However, a lawyer may not hold funds to coerce a client into accepting the lawyer's contention. The disputed portion of the funds should be kept in trust and the lawyer should suggest means for prompt resolution of the dispute, such as arbitration. The undisputed portion of the funds shall be promptly distributed.

 [5] Third parties, such as a client's creditors, may have just claims against funds or other property in a lawyer's custody. A lawyer may have a duty under applicable law to protect such third-party claims against wrongful interference by the client, and accordingly may refuse to surrender the property to the client. However, a lawyer should not unilaterally assume to arbitrate a dispute between the client and the third party.

 [6] The obligations of a lawyer under this Rule are independent of those arising from activity other than rendering legal services. For example, a lawyer who serves as an escrow agent is governed by the applicable law relating to fiduciaries even though the lawyer does not render legal services in the transaction. See Rule 1.16(d) for standards applicable to retention of client papers.

 [7] A "client's security fund" provides a means through the collective efforts of the bar to reimburse persons who have lost money or property as a result of dishonest conduct of a lawyer. Where such a fund has been established, a lawyer should participate.

 [8] It is to be noted that the duty to keep separate from the lawyer's own property any property in which any other person claims an interest exists whether or not there is a dispute as to ownership of the property. Likewise, although the second sentence of Rule 1.15(c) deals specifically with disputed ownership, the first sentence of that provision--requiring some form of accounting--applies even if there is no dispute as to ownership. For example, if the lawyer receives a settlement check made payable jointly to the lawyer and the lawyer's client, covering both the lawyer's fee and the client's recovery, the lawyer must provide an accounting to the client before taking the lawyer's fee from the joint funds. Typically the check will be deposited in the lawyer's trust account and, following an accounting to the client with respect to the fee, the lawyer will "sever" the fee by withdrawing the amount of the fee from the trust account and depositing it in the lawyer's operating account.